The Xoirokoitia is the best preserved prehistoric settlement in Cyprus, dating from the later phase of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period (around 7000 BC). In 1998 it was declared World Heritage by UNESCO.
The name is said that probably came from the word cheirogitia suggesting exercise of palmistry. In another aspect perhaps stemmed from the possible initial Ierokotida name (holy place). Others claim that the name came from the words and round house because the prehistoric huts discovered there were round. Even the tradition says that it came from the phrase Hail Kition sent by the notorious and mysterious queen of Cyprus into a friend from Kition. It was also argued that perhaps the name came from the ANOVA plant cheromolia. With the simpler name cheromolia apantato the plant cultivated in Cyprus, but this version is considered very unlikely.
The settlement is built on a steep hillside on the West bank of the Maroni River, 6 km. From the sea. It is one of the most impressive examples of early establishment of permanent populations on the island. In the west, where the settlement is not naturally fortified, built a wide enclosure wall. Its construction requires collective effort, suggesting complex social organization.